1. Definition
Game based learning (GBL) is a type of game play that has defined learning outcomes. Generally, game based learning is designed to balance subject matter with game-play and the ability of the player to retain and apply said subject matter to the real world. It describes an approach to teaching, where students explore relevant aspect of games in a learning context designed by teachers. Teachers and students collaborate in order to add depth and perspective to the experience of playing the game (Editorial Team, 2013).
2. Background
2.1. History
Taking a look at history tells us that using games for educational purposes come a long way. American Kriegsspiel, which had originally been created in 1812 for training Prussian officers-of-war was played by volunteers from Rhode Island during the civil wars. Noblemen of the Middle Ages learned strategies of war using chess. Furthermore, in the 19th century, Friedrich Fröbel created Kindergarten, which was based on learning through play. These children delighted in his Fröbel Gifts, which included educational toys such as blocks, sewing kits, clay, and weaving materials (Eduxtive, 2014).
Furthermore, Prensky (2001) suggested that digital game base learning surfaced in the last decades of the 21st century when technology was booming most. These days, students come in contact with all sorts of technology from cellphones to smartphones, laptops, iPad, video and even digital games. It thus brings Presky (2001) to think that students of now a days, “think and process information fundamentally differently than their predecessors.” Teachers, or what Prensky calls “digital immigrants” then have to become accustomed to the learning styles and language of “digital natives,” a term he uses to describe students who have always been surrounded by technology. Therefore Prensky advises that computer or digital based game is an effective medium through which the teacher can reach out to the needs of these students. (Coffey, 2009).
2.2. Theories
2.2.1. Kiili’s experimental gaming model
The main purpose of kiili’s experimental gaming model is to link gameplay with experimental learning in order to facilitate flow experience (Kiili, 2005b). The model describes learning as a cyclic process through direct experience in the games world, thus having a relation to Kolb’s cycle of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984).
According to Kiili (2006), this model which consists of a gaming and design cycle can be used to explain educational games and games in general. The gaming cycle gives an account of the gaming process as well as the learning process in games. It aims to focus the efforts of designers towards enhancing the most important factors that influence the gaming experience and learning with games. Meanwhile the designer cycle describes the main phases of game design and works as a guideline in the design process. The design process is presented abstractly because it may vary among the different game genres. This model emphasizes the importance of considering several flow antecedents in educational game design: challenges matched to the skill level of a player, clear goals, unambiguous feedback, a sense of control, play-ability, game-fullness, focused attention and a frame story ( as cited in Staalduinen and Freitas, 2011). The ambition of designing the sort of games that enhance experiencing flow is justifiable because previous research indicates that flow has a positive impact on learning, exploratory behaviour and the attitudes of players (Webster et al., 1993; Kiili, 2005b).
2.2.2. Constructivism
Constructivism is a philosophical, epistemological, and pedagogical approach to learning, where learning is viewed as an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so (Connolly, 2011).
Gaming is an activity enjoyed by many students, and when used for educational purposes, games can improve student motivation towards learning, particularly when used in the creation of constructivist learning opportunities. Applying constructivist principles to educational game-based learning activities yields an approach that puts students in the role of active learners and content creators (Reeve, 2010).
Both situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship all stem from the roots of constructivism. According to Duncan (1996), the "most appropriate instructional method is one that incorporates both (a) realistic presentation of knowledge, procedures, and skill and (b) opportunities for students to apply the knowledge and practice the procedures and skills in a realistic context" (Duncan, 1996). Thus cognitive apprenticeships bridges the gap between school and work and enable the transfer of knowledge and skills through contextualized, situated learning that increases the learner’s intrinsic motivation and facilitates meaning-making during the learning process (Seitz, 1999).
The learners are able to engage in authentic, goal driven and collaborative problem solving situations through the contextual advantage provided by games and virtual environments
This is considered in situated theories of learning to be features of optimal learning. With situated assessment, virtual worlds have the advantage of facilitating dynamic feedback that directs the perceiving agent to continually improve performance.
2.2.3. Problem based learning theory
In problem based learning, students collaborate with each other to form knowledge that can be used to solve problems (Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Ertmer, & Simons, 2006). According to Hmelo-Silver (2004), problem based learning “is well suited to helping students become active learners because it situates learning in real-world problems and makes students responsible for their learning”. Januszewski and Pearson (1999) reveal six key features of the problem based learning approach. They are as follows:
  • the problem is introduced before any dissemination of knowledge
  • knowledge should be developed on an as-needed basis
  • intrinsic motivation in which the learner takes ownership is key
  • there has to be a connection to the real world
  • learning is promoted
  • working as individuals or in groups
Prensky (2000) indicates that a learner’s critical thinking and problem solving skills can be enhanced through the use of electronic games. Royle (2008) further explains that “real learning does happen in games, and the learning engaged by gamers share many attributes with the pedagogy of problem-based learning”. Kiili (2007), also argues that “educational games may offer a viable strategy for developing students’ problem solving skills”. This is because games challenge the gamers to become active participants in the games and solve the issues in order that they can progress in the game.
3. Types and components
3.1. Components of game based learning
Deubel (2006), suggests that for digital game based learning to be effective, firstly, the games must keep learning and engagement at a high level. Moreover, an effective game based learning program should have rules and goals. Also, teachers must make the outcomes of the games clear and provide immediate feedback. He further recommended that students have an interactive role not only with the game, but with other students as well.
Etcetera Edutainment (2014), furthermore suggests 4 components of game based learning as follows:Simulation: A system-based representation of the learning content; Interactions which are the choices and actions a learner can make to influence the system; Choices which relate directly to the learning objectives and desired outcomes ; structure: the learner's interaction with the simulation is structured in different ways based on the needs of the audience and feedback: As an active system, the simulation already provides some feedback, but additional feedback (both immediate and delayed) is included to reinforce key learning objectives.
3.2 Mechanisms of game based learning
Perrotta et al. (2013) also suggested some mechanisms for game based learning which include:
  • Rules:All games have a set of rules. These rules could be simple or complex depending on the consequences and the choices that are made available.
  • Clear but challenging goals: They have clear cut out goals. This helps the participant to be able to assess the consequence of his actions and how far he has attained his or her goals.
  • A fictional setting or fantasy that provides a compelling background: This is a very important aspect of gaming. The ability to indulge the learner into a world of fantasy and the use of pretence can also assist learning. In gaming the learner learns the consequences of choices they could make in real life situations.
  • Progressive difficulty levels: In games this is a necessary criteria for levelling up. Thus in games the player is given the opportunity to play several times without lasting consequence in order to move from one level to another.
  • Interaction and high degree of student control: This involves autonomy. The learner has the feeling that he is in control of his actions and choices. Also, any decision he or she makes he knows it would be immediately rewarded.
  • A degree of uncertainty and unpredictability: This is important in a game. It makes it more interesting and intriguing and you get a feeling of fulfilment when you achieve your goal.
  • Immediate and constructive feedback: One intriguing feature of a game is its ability to provide immediate feedback. This helps as guidance and improves performance. This is in concordance with formative evaluation.
  • A social element that allows people to share experiences and build bonds: Within a gaming environment, the players are given an opportunity to interact in environments that are similar to those in real life. From this they try out several choices and they learn from the consequences of their actions.
3.3. Possible game styles for various learning content

Prensky (2001) proposed possible game styles for various content. It could be summarized as such:
  • For facts like laws, policies, product specification could be learnt using game that show competition, flashcard type games, mnemonics, action and sports games.
  • Also persistent state games, role- play games, adventure games and detective games could be used to teach skills like project management, interviewing and so on.
  • In order to teach how to make judgment in cases such as management decisions, timing, ethics or hiring, games like role paly games, detective games, multiplayer interaction, adventure and strategy games could be used.
  • For teaching behaviour like supervision, self-control and setting examples, role playing games would be best.
  • Games like open ended simulation games, building games, constructing games and reality testing games could be used to teach theories such as external image arrow-10x10.png.
  • When teaching reasoning for instance strategic and tactical thinking or quality analysis, puzzle games are best to use.
  • For teaching processes like auditing or strategy creation, strategy and adventure games could be used.
  • Puzzle and invention games could be used to lean creativity in doing project design, invention and so on.
  • When teaching language, role playing games, reflex games and flashcard games could be used.
  • For teaching and learning various systems like health care, external image arrow-10x10.png and refineries, simulation games could be used.
  • For teaching observation, concentration and adventure games could be used.
  • For teaching communication skills like timing, involvement or appropriate language, games like role playing games and reflex games could be used.
3.4. Considerations for selecting educational games
Deubel (2006) suggested that the following should be taken into consideration when teachers select games for learning:
  • Students’ age, characteristics, gender, competitiveness, and previous gaming experience.
  • The game’s target age level.
  • Special needs: Would students with disabilities be left out?
  • Gender and racial diversity: In its choice of characters, language, or situations, does the game offend any particular group of students?
  • Number of players: How many students can play at one time? Will too many be left sitting on their hands?
  • The role of the teacher: Passive observer or active participant?
Yen, L. (2014) further proposed the following points to consider when choosing educational games:
  • What is the child’s learning level?
  • Is it stimulating according to the child’s learning preference?
  • What skills and knowledge can the game offer?
  • What are the advertisements on these online learning games?
  • Does the game help to unlock the creativity in the child?
Sanford and Wiliamson (2005) proposed several approaches by which games can be used in class:
  • Games can be used for motivation to reward good behaviour or good performance. For instance the e-games league in Nottingham which seeks to encourage disenfranchised youngsters back to school by acknowledging their interests and abilities as expert gamers.
  • Games can be used as starting point for class discussion. For instance the teacher can ask the students questions about why the developer did what they did in the game or ask them to explain certain aspects of a game that would lead to the class lesson. Games based on movies can also be used to support media studies.
  • Games can also be used within wider set of activities. This is the most prevalent use in America. SimCity the Urban management game for instance has been used as the basis for a national FutureCity competition. Here the students are given various cities to manage and they write out the reasons to external image arrow-10x10.png back up their vision for the city. Through this they are bound to learn managerial skills as well as computer, science and maths skills.
4. Educational applications Several examples exist of the application of games in school for instance electronic dance mats to support PE lessons, the use of school Tycoon as a stimulus to develop students’ numeracy and fiscal skills. Some include:4.1. Jasper Series: The Jasper series includes a variety of videodisc adventures focused on problem formulation and problem solving. It is a classic example of anchored instruction. Each videodisc used a visual narrative to bring forth day to day life realistic issues. It aimed at the students checking out the problems and proposing probable solutions to these problems. These laid down objectives led students through the collaborative process of problem formulation and problem solving. The series involves various games in aspects like Statistics and business plan, Geometry and complex trip planning (Barron, B., et al., 1995).
4.2. Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
In 1985, Brøderbund released Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? In this game the players are required to take on the role of a novice Acme Detective Agency investigator and attempt to arrest shadowy, travelling spy named Carmen Sandiego or one of her cohorts who steals the Eiffel-tower. In order to get hold of the culprit, the player is expected to trail the rogue across continents and in so doing solve increasingly complex situations that need the assistance of a map or an encyclopaedia. WWCS? (as it was later abbreviated for the Apple II, and IBM/Tandy compatibles) was the first smash hit in the soon-to-be-coined “edutainment” subclass of entertainment software (Waddell and Lowood,2001). This American educational software and WQED-Pittsburgh and WGBH Boston produced television show originally focused on teaching geography and history but later on moved to other subjects. Even though this was originally produced by Brøderbund in 1985 however, today it is produced by The Learning Company.
4.3. SimCityEDU: It is a game-based learning and assessment tool for middle school students covering the Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. With SimCityEDU, educators have more digital games, they have tools and content they need to make learning come alive for all students.
In SimCityEDU: pollution Challenge: Its designed in partnership with the assessment experts from ETS and Pearson. Here students play the role of mayor, doing the challenging work of addressing environment impact while balancing the needs and the happiness of the city’s citizens. This helps students develop problem solving skills. It includes plans and student and teacher dashboards and student data reporting. Built with today’s classrooms in mind, Pollution Challenge! supports a wide range of implementations from middle school science classrooms to after school programs and technology clubs.
This game engages students with a high-quality game experience develop real-world problem-solving skills and unlock new ways to assess (Glasslab, Inc., 2014).
It covers:
Common Core made up of:
  • Cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.1
  • Integrate information from texts & diagrams, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.7
  • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.1
  • Proficiently read and comprehend literary nonfiction, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.10
  • Read and understand text and make logical inferences from it, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1
Next Generation Science made up of:
  • ESS3. C Human Impacts on Earth Systems
  • Cross Cutting Concept: Systems Thinking (Glasslab, Inc., 2014).
4.4. Institute of play: They create learning experiences rooted in the principles of game design—experiences that simulate real world problems, and require dynamic, well-rounded solutions. Furthermore, they support teachers and other learning leaders in making learning irresistible—creating for students a powerful need to know, and a hunger to learn more. They also believe in making learning relevant—to the technologies that shape kids’ lives, the passions that fuel their ambitions, and the demands of life in the 21st century (Institute of play, 2014). There are various examples of the products of the institution of play. They include:
4.5.1. Quest to learn: Quest to Learn’s unique standards-based integrated curriculum mimics the action and design principles of games by generating a compelling “need to know” in the classroom. Each trimester students encounter a series of increasingly complex, narrative challenges, games or quests, where learning, knowledge sharing, feedback, reflection and next steps emerge as a natural function of play.
For instance, in the integrated science and math learning domain, “The Way Things Work,” over the course of one trimester, sixth graders help a shrunken mad scientist, lost inside the human body, navigate the systems he encounters and report back to his research lab.
Other unique components of Quest to Learn include an embedded learning design studio (Mission Lab), a mixed-reality learning environment (SMALLab), after-school programming (Short Circuit and others), a private social network in which students practice digital citizenship (QLINK), an in-school teacher and professional development program (Studio Q) and a game design summer camp (MobileQuest). (Quest to learn/Institute of play, 2014)
4.5.2 Histrionix Learning: Historia is our core curriculum aligned, social studies simulation and strategy game. It provides interactive, game-based curriculum (and teacher training) to public, private and home schools that improves student achievement by engaging all learning styles, enhancing critical thinking skills and encouraging creative problem solving, which are the building blocks of thoughtful, twenty-first century students — and citizens (Eduplaytion, 2012).
4.6. The Monkey Wrench Conspiracy"mod": It puts you in the role of an intergalactic secret agent dispatched to deep space to rescue the Copernicus station from alien hijackers. It is a complete tutorial for a complex technical product, designed to teach industrial engineers how to use new 3-D design software. games2train.com's "video game tutorial" concept combines all the learning of a standard, dry tutorial with an exciting state-of-the-art video game. The concept can be adapted and customized to any product and industry (http://www.games2train.com/site/html/tutor.html).
4.7. The George Lucas Foundation hosts an educationally-themed site called Edutopia. A major focus of the site is game-based learning in the classroom. A recent post titled “Teach with your iPhone: Apps to use in the Classroom” offers practical advice and may trigger other ideas for integrating new media into the classroom (White, 2013).

Klopfer, Osterweil and Salen (2009) furthermore proposed a number of educational games that are already in use in Education these days. They include: Zoo scene investigators, Gamestar Mechanic, Palmagotchi, Racing Academy, Mind Rover, Ayitl: the cost of life, Lure of the Labyrinth, Making History: The calm and the storm. For more explanation on each of these games, go to page 38 of this document by clicking here.

5. Pros, Cons and Issues of Game based learning
5.1 Issues of game based learning
Connolly (2011) brought forth that in applying game based learning there could be strategic, institutional and pedagogic issues which amongst others include:
  • There is the need for the construction of empirical data to support the hypothesis that game based learning is effective. Even though some studies have tried to come up with the assertion that learning through games could be effective, there is still the need for further investigation that would provide a foundation and basis for the effectiveness of use of games in learning.
  • There is also the need to investigate the contexts in which games could be effectively used for learning. Even though many studies have been carried out on this, there is still much to be done as there is still the belief that games are fun and could not be used for learning. Thus we need more studies to throw more light on this and back it up.
  • Moreover, we need to identify the mechanisms to bring together game developers and educationalists that would produce games that are pedagogically effective.
  • The identification of mechanisms to empower the learner to produce their own content through games is also highly required.
  • We also need to identify the means by which the teachers can effortlessly add evaluation to game based learning.
  • Furthermore the administrators need to reorganize their institutions in order to better fit in game based learning. Such as giving more time for learning etc.
  • Another challenge is how technological advancements like multi-sensory immersive human-computer interfaces, virtual worlds like second life etc. can be ideally used and integrated into the pedagogical system in order to improve the effectiveness of learning.
5.2. The Cons of game based learning
Marquis (2013), identified the following as the negatives against game based learning:
  • Cost: A game based curriculum would be more expensive than a normal standard paper/pencil education in terms of equipment, software, training on how to use the equipment and so on.
  • Distraction from other objectives: It is true that games help engage the students. However most of the gamers are limited in the content and context that they present for learning.
  • Social isolation: One of the most prominent criticisms of game based learning is that it promotes individualism and antisocial behaviours.
  • Shortened attention span: Due to the immediate feedback and rapid pace of action in games, this can make the gamers to expect same in real life but which is not the case. However, with average completion times of 40 hours of deep concentration and problem solving, games do promote sustained focus, just in non-traditional ways.
Coffey (2009) also suggested some disadvantages of game based learning:
  • The goals of the games do not necessarily always align with the learning goals of the classroom.
  • Teachers have to determine whether the content of the game is appropriate for the specific age groups and whether the games are suitable for the standards-based accountability movement. This means more work and pressure on the teachers and there might be a gap between teaching and learning as the students are more versed with technology than the older generations.
  • There is an inability to ask questions on the task at hand while playing games on the computer. This lack of interaction, communication, feedback and discussion can also lead to frustration.
Moreover, Deubel (2006) said that games may be more distracting than a typical learning tool and may not be consistent with the learning objectives.
Annetta et al. (2009) further debated that the complexity and difficulty of some of these games instead distract and disengage these students from learning.
Griffiths (2002) also stated that games are constantly being upgraded and thus the administration need to keep up with this and be able to provide enough resources.
5.3. Pros of game based learning
Jones (2013), identified some benefits of game based learning as follows:
  • Increases a child’s memory capacity: Most games involve memorization, having to know a particular sequence or elements of a narrative. All these improve the gamer’s memory capacity.
  • Computer and simulation fluency: We live in a century where technology know-how is very essential. Through games the children get to know how to use the computer and even how to surf the internet and so on. And there are also games that teach them how to use the keyboard, mouse and so on which are essential skills in our world today.
  • Enables fast strategic thinking and problem solving: When playing games, the gamers are usually required to think fast and think ahead of their strategies in order to be able to go through with the game. This improves the children’s problem solving skills and their ability to be creative and think out of the box.
  • Develops hand-eye coordination: Taking the example of the game cartoon network games amongst others. This game requires the gamers to use a keyboard or gamepad and mouse to operate the game. This entails them looking at the actions on the screen and trying to control with their hands. This goes a long way to help develop their eye-hand coordination.
  • Skill building: Many games have attributes that enable gamers to develop certain skills. When playing games more often than not, they are required to assume the roles of mangers, police and they have to carry out various activities while assigned to these roles. This make them gain some essential skills in that aspect.
Ledda (2014) also brought forth a number of points as to why game based learning is beneficial. It includes:
  • Getting students attention: Since students are willing to play games, its very easy to get their attention through games
  • Students get a positive experience about learning: Using games help students’ learning to be more fun and makes them want to continue learning.
  • Rememorize concepts or facts: When students play games that involve solving a crossword or a puzzle, this encourages them to have knowledge of that aspect in order to succeed.
  • Reinforce and consolidate knowledge in a friendly environment: Through games the students are able to reinforce and consolidate the knowledge they already have by practicing in the course of playing these games.
  • Understand the consequences of our choices and actions: Through games the students in a safety environment learn through trial and error and through their mistakes and through this they are able to better appreciate and information they have.
6. Research Findings
A CNN reporter Barthelemy (2009) reported various researches which have been carried out and came out with the conclusion that video games are good for our health. This is indirectly related to games in education because when games affect our sight, brains and coordination; these are all aspects that would in turn affect the teaching learning process. Amongst these research results include:
  • An Iowa state University study on surgeons revealed video games can improve motor skills as well as hand-eye coordination. In the study, surgeons that played games for hours a week made fewer mistakes in surgical procedures and performed the tasks faster. Thus as a result of this study, a video game was devised to help trainee surgeons warm up before entering the operation room.
  • Also, University of Ottawa researchers have tested Nintendo’s Wii on Parkinson’s patients. After six weeks of training 30 minutes daily with Wii Fit and 15 minutes with Wii sports, the participants improved their static balance. This training helps to slow down the decline of functional disabilities the researcher said.
  • Playing Tetris can boost brain efficiency. Researchers from Mind Research Network in Albuquerque tested 26 adolescent girls who played Tetris for 30 minutes a day over three months and found out that they developed thicker cortex than girls who did not.
  • Researchers at Nottingham University found that playing video games could sharpen vision and may even help cure Amblyopia. Amblyopia could be treated by wearing an eye patch over the good eye but these researchers say playing certain video games could achieve in an hour what eye patches achieve in 400 hours-wow!!.
  • Also researchers at the University of Rochester found that first-person-shooter video games improve visual skills by increasing the brain’s capacity to spread attention over a wide range of events.
Furthermore, in 57 studies that compared teaching with a game using other instructional tools with using games, teaching done with games was found to be more effective (Jacobson, 2014).
A survey from the Games and Learning Publishing Council highlights that the use of digital games in the classroom is becoming more common and teachers are increasingly valuing the ability games have to motivate low-performing students. Of all teachers surveyed, 47% of teachers reported that low-performing students received the greatest benefit from games in their classrooms, almost as many as all other categories combined, and 65% reported that low-performing students became more engaged with content overall when it was presented in the form of a game. 55% said that their lower-performing students were more motivated when playing a game (Joan Ganz Cooney Center, 2014).
Moreover, studies carried out by Clark et al. (2014) showed that:
  • The design of a game has a significant relationship with the learning outcome. The results from this study showed that students who played games which were designed with information from learning theories performed better than those who played games that were just standardly designed.
  • Using games in learning improve cognitive outcomes. As well as intrapersonal and personal interactions too.
  • Teachers who surround students’ game experiences with additional support and instruction together with other surrounding activities achieved better results.
Wouters, P., et al (2013) also said that various studies’ results show that games help students retain what they have learnt. Also they said in studies that required students to play a certain game more than once, the learning outcomes were higher in these games that allowed the students to play multiple times.
Moreover, Parkes, et al. (2013) carried out a study that involved 11,000 students. This study found that video games did not have negative emotional or behavioural effects and did not negatively affect attention.
Also a study of 5,000 students carried out by Przybylski, A. K. (2014) revealed that students who play games up to an hour a day demonstrated greater social and emotional well-being. This study showed the links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (<1.6% of variance) yet statistically significant.
NB: Click here to read more researches on game based learning.
7. Additional Materials and External Links on game based learning
7.1 Websites

7.2. Researches and external references
  • Clarke, J., & Dede, C. (2005). Making learning meaningful: An exploratory study of using multi-user environments (MUVEs) in middle school science. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference, Montreal, Canada.
  • Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Rieber, L. P. (1996). Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games.Educational Technology Research & Development, 44(2), 43-58
  • Shaffer, D. W. (2006). How computer games help children learn. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Vogel, J. J. et. al. (2006). Computer gaming and interactive simulations for learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(3), 229-243.
  • Wagner, Mark. (2011). Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games As Constructivist Learning Environments in K-12 Education: A Delphi Study. (1.1 MB PDF)
  • Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2006). Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 high school survey of student engagement. Indiana University School of Education Bloomington. Retrieved November, 11, 2014, from http://ceep.indiana.edu/hssse/pdf/HSSSE_2006_Report.pdf.
7.3 Journal Articles
7.4 Designing Games within Education

8. References
  • Annetta, L. A., Minogue, J., Holmes, S.Y., & Cheng, M.T. (2009). Investigating the impact of video games on high school students’ engagement and learning about genetics. Computers & Education, 53(1), 74-85.
  • Barron, B., et al., (1995). Creating Contexts for community-based problem solving: the Jasper challenge series. In Thinking and Literacy: The Mind at work, edited by C. Hedley, P. Antonacci, and M. Rabinowitz, pp 47-72. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Barthelemy, C. (2009). Are video games good for your health? Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/10/27/gaming.health.senses/index.html, 10th November, 2014.
  • Clark, D., Tanner-Smith, E., Killingsworth, S . (2014). Digital Games, Design and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (Executive Summary). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Accessed November 10, 2014.
  • Coffey, Heather. (2009). Digital game-based learning. Retrieved from:
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4970, 2014-10-31.
https://www.filamentgames.com/research-roundup-studies-support-game-based-learning, 10th November, 2014.

  • Joan Ganz Cooney Center (2014). Teachers surveyed on using Digital games in class. A game and learning research report. Retrived from
http://www.gamesandlearning.org/2014/06/09/teachers-on-using-games-in-class/, 10th November, 2014.
http://www.games2train.com/site/html/tutor.html, 10th November, 2014.
http://web.stanford.edu/group/htgg/cgibin/drupal/sites/default/files2/mwaddell_2001_2.pdf , Retrieved November, 5, 2014.
  • Webster, J., Klebe Trevino, L., et al. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human-computer interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 411–426.
  • White (2013). 10+ Game-Based Learning Resources: From Practical Applications To Academic Theory. Retrieved from
http://www.teachthought.com/trends/10-game-based-learning-resources-from-practical-applications-to-academic-theory/, 10th November, 2014.